The problem of saving energy emerged in the second half of this century. In recent years, it began to approach decision-dit on a scientific basis - integrated and inclusive. Reckless use of natural resources such as coal, oil, gas, logging of forests (ispozovanie hardwood as feedstock), constant but increases energy consumption - all the world's population spends their everyday needs, and a thriving industry - the technical .
Exacerbate this problem contributed to increases in the price of oil and gas by international oil companies, which allowed them to dramatically increase their profits. Broke the so-called, the energy crisis. Today more РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА than ever there is a question about energy saving and rational use in all areas of human life.
In the domestic industry one of the most significant consumers of fuel and energy is building, and among his of industries - companies precast concrete, which the country was carrying-because thousands. The analysis of these companies showed that consumption-tion of energy can be significantly reduced. Almost all production has real reserves for energy efficiency. If the neck of-build these reserves and more efficiently organize technological processes-tions, the power consumption can be reduced by at least 1.5 times. This will РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА give the national economy a huge economic impact.
Concrete, possessing many great qualities, at the same time refers to the highly energy-intensive materials. According to the CSO, the production of 1 cu. m precast concrete on average spent 470 thousand calories, to provide various designs on the polygon-tries, as well as imperfect processes this rate increases to 1 million kcal or more. If we consider that the annual demand for energy industry precast zhelezobeto-on is about 12 million tons of fuel, it is clear that even a small percentage of its economy will release large amounts of fuel for other РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА purposes of the economy. The need for an in energy to produce 1 cubic meter. m precast reinforced concrete products do not include the cost of energy required for the production of the concrete (cement, aggregates) and arma-ture, they are even more energy.
Considering the problem of rational use of energy in the manufacture of precast concrete products to the national hozyays-operation, it is necessary to take into account the cost of energy spent on production of cement and rebar. This is the most expensive, scarce and energy intensive materials, and competent, are excluded fuel consumption will lead to energy РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА savings.
Savings cement - this is one of the most acute problems modern-term national development. There are real ways to reduce the consumption of cement builders.
The largest cost overruns observed in cement concretes for r-on preparations of the low-quality aggregates. Thus, the use of sand-gravel mixtures leads to an increase of cement consumption to 100 kg / cu. m This is just to get be-ton mixture necessary plasticity and provide the required grade of concrete strength. Durability is it (in particular, morozos-toykost) are generally low, and concrete structures with an alternating freezing and thawing РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА break down rather quickly on-gotovlenie a concrete cleaner and factional em aggregates require the least amount of cement and provides high quality of structures.
Significant savings can be achieved by the cement of correct design of concrete, not exaggerating its brand to the concrete as soon as possible reach the required prochnos-ti. You can also reduce consumption of cement by introducing a concrete mix-up of highly plasticizing bavok (superplasticizers). Industry began to produce specifically for the manufacture of concrete. These additives include P-3, developed in conjunction with other NIIZhB organization-mi. Thanks to thin РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА the additive effect-3 becomes possible to reduce the amount of cement by 20% without compromising the basic physical and mechanical properties of concrete. If we consider that the introduction of additives reducing the consumption of cement per cubic meter prefabricated products will average 50-60 kg, thanks to significantly reduced fuel consumption.
In the factories there are noticeable loss is estimated to heat 1 cu. meters of concrete in the form of steel up to 80 degrees (the temperature of the isothermal aging) require application etsyapbut 60 thousand calories. Since HandGreve is a gradual but - at a speed of 20 degrees per hour, the process being accompanied РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА by a non-minuemoandby a significant release of heat into the surrounding environment schuyu. With proper equipment required for heat treatment products, the loss towithTeague 150 thousand kcal, which is 2-2.5 times more useful spent tonsepla. With defective or neBrezhnev maintained equipment, as well as unreasonably excessive duration of heat treatment required to losses (PLAN-mym) added losses neproizvodandIndeed They range in all-ma widely and some plants reach about 200 thousand kcal per cu. meters of concrete. Thus, the total heat loss in a few times largersare solved heat spent on heating the concrete form.
Reduce heat loss during heat treatment products РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА can not admitting fault in the equipment. Steaming pit camera very often work with defective E-wing Skum - do not work or are poorly water slide, making tends to be biased covers, this results in large losses of a PWM pair. In the workshop for working are unfavorable hygienic conditions, high humidity promotes rapid corrosion of metal structures and equipment. Avoid major heat loss can be achieved by timely repairs and a preventive inspections.
Studies conducted by the staff NIIZhelezobetona have shown that the total heat loss in the pit cells in the processing of products up to 70% of the РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА total flow of heat processing on the heat-treated products. The reason for this - the device walls and bottom chambers of heavy concrete, has a high-conductivity teploprovo. Position it can be corrected only improve constructive solutions cameras. These solutions are designed VNIIZhe-reinforced concrete.
One solution is to replace the heavy concrete keramsit. In this case, you can reduce heat loss but approximately 50%. If fences make pit chambers of such concrete, but with internal insulation and thermal insulation, heat loss can be reduced, but 3 times. A similar effect can be achieved with the field device РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА cell wall of heavy concrete with multiple air spaces.
Serious attention should stand technology fabrication of precast reinforced concrete flat slabs. According to this technology in the form of a package produced several products, separated by thin strips of sheet steel or plastic-Mount the bathrooms in his electric heaters. Located between the product-mi heaters almost all the heat is given to both hand, ie products, so that heat loss to the environment proiskho DYT-only through the ends of which surface is small.
Application of the method of manufacture and batch thermal processing of flat concrete products РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА has had a great impact on the Organization of the whole technological process of production of precast concrete. Instead of the usual forms have begun to use a form with B lovymi sides and a flat bottom, which is much less metal emki. Changed and many manufacturing operations. All this is facilitated by the increase in production on the same production plane schadyah 1.5-2 times, reduction of metal equipment by 30-35%, increase productivity by 10-15%. But most importantly, an opportunity to dramatically reduce energy consumption for heating processing products. There is every reason to believe that a batch SPO-proper heat treatment of precast РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА concrete products for the dignity of production workers will be evaluated and have been widely used in factories reinforced concrete.
Currently, a variety of methods in electro-processing of concrete in the manufacture of precast concrete products in the factories. One of the most cost-effective (in terms of energy consumption) is a concrete way elektrotermoobrabotki way elektroprogreva or electrode heating, ie inclusion of concrete in the circuit as it as a guide. In this case, the electrical energy is converted into heat directly in the concrete, to minimize any kind of loss. Depending on the power of the РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА electric current can be heated to a temperature of concrete is 100 degrees, and for any period of time - from a few minutes to several hours. Thus, there Shih rokie opportunity to choose the optimal conditions of heat treatment of the Delhi-and thus ensure high performance production lines.
In recent years, overseas widely touted method of pre-heating of concrete mixes directly in the mixer with the pair: the mixer loaded aggregates and cement, and in the process of mixing of steam is. Heating the mixture be-ton, steam cools and condenses. Number eats pair is calculated РЕСУРСОСБЕРЕГАЮЩИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ ПРИ ПРОИЗВОДСТВЕ СБОРНОГО ЖЕЛЕЗОБЕТОНА in such a way that after the water-cement ratio of total condensation match the designed concrete. In mixer concrete mixture is heated to a temperature of 60 degrees, and then fed to the place-shaping of the Delhi.